A simple list of the top ten problems with the Big Bang. The supplement list is based on the last four years of developments – with another 20 problems for the theory.
Perhaps never in the history of science has so much quality evidence accumulated against a model so widely accepted within a field. Even the most basic elements of the theory, the expansion of the universe and the fireball remnant radiation, remain interpretations with credible alternative explanations. One must wonder why, in this circumstance, that four good alternative models are not even being comparatively discussed by most astronomers.
Article text (to be shortened) from: http://www.metaresearch.org/cosmology/BB-top-30.asp
Tio i topp lista med problem för Big Bang teorin
- (1) Static universe models fit observational data better than expanding universe models.
- (2) The microwave “background” makes more sense as the limiting temperature of space heated by starlight than as the remnant of a fireball.
- (3) Element abundance predictions using the Big Bang require too many adjustable parameters to make them work.
- (4) The universe has too much large scale structure (interspersed "walls" and voids) to form in a time as short as 10-20 billion years.
- (5) The average luminosity of quasars must decrease with time in just the right way so that their average apparent brightness is the same at all redshifts, which is exceedingly unlikely.
- (6) The ages of globular clusters appear older than the universe.
- (7) The local streaming motions of galaxies are too high for a finite universe that is supposed to be everywhere uniform.
- (8) Invisible dark matter of an unknown but non-baryonic nature must be the dominant ingredient of the entire universe.
- (9) The most distant galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field show insufficient evidence of evolution, with some of them having higher redshifts (z = 6-7) than the highest-redshift quasars.
- (10) If the open universe we see today is extrapolated back near the beginning, the ratio of the actual density of matter in the universe to the critical density must differ from unity by just a part in 1059. Any larger deviation would result in a universe already collapsed on itself or already dissipated.
Ytterligare tjugo problem
It is easy to argue that several of these additional 20 points should be among the "top ten":
- "Pencil-beam surveys"
- The theoretical energy limit for anything traveling at very high speed.
- The Big Bang predicts equal amounts of matter and antimatter but matter dominates the present universe.
- The Gunn-Peterson effect.
- An excess of QSOs is observed around foreground clusters.
- The Big Bang violates the first law of thermodynamics, that energy cannot be either created or destroyed (by requiring that new space filled with "zero-point energy" be continually created between the galaxies).
- The Big Bang requires large-scale homogeneity.
- Elliptical galaxies
- Faraday rotations in quasars should increase (on average) with distance.
- If the dark matter needed by the Big Bang exists, microwave radiation fluctuations should have "acoustic peaks".
- Redshifts are quantized for both galaxies [,] and quasars 55. So are other properties of galaxies. 56 This should not happen under Big Bang premises.
- The number density of optical quasars.
- The falloff of the power spectrum at small scales can be used to determine the temperature of the intergalactic medium.
- Under Big Bang premises, the fine structure constant must vary with time. 59
- Measurements of the two-point correlation function for optically selected galaxies.
- Quasar metallicities.
- The absorption lines of damped Lyman-alpha systems are seen in quasars.
- The luminosity evolution of brightest cluster galaxies (BGCs) cannot be adequately explained by a single evolutionary model.
- Globular clusters
- Blue galaxy counts show an excess of faint blue galaxies by a factor of 10 at magnitude 28. This implies that the volume of space is larger than in the Big Bang, where it should get smaller as one looks back in time. 67